Spirulina Analysis

Typical Chemical Analysis of Spirulina

(Analysis done by TNO, a government-sponsored, UN-approved laboratory.)


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Chemical Composition
Moisture 7.0%
Ash 9.0%
Proteins71.0%
Crude fiber 0.9%
Xanthophylls1.80 g/kg of product
Carotene1.90 g/kg of product
Chlorophyll a7.60 g/kg of product

Total Organic Nitrogen13.35%  
Nitrogen from Proteins11.36%  
Crude Protein (%N x 6.25)71.00%  

Essential Amino Acids
Histidine1.08%
Isoleucine4.13%
Leucine5.80%
Lysine4.00%
Methionine2.17%
Phenylalanine3.95%
Threonine4.17%
Tryptophan1.13%
Valine6.00%

Non-Essential Amino Acids
Alanine5.82%
Arginine5.98%
Aspartic Acid6.43%
Cystine0.67%
Glutamic Acid8.94%
Glycine3.46%
Proline2.97%
Serine4.00%
Tyrosine4.60%

Vitamins
Biotin (H)average0.40 mg/kg
Cyanocobalamin (B-12)average2.00 mg/kg
d-Ca-Pantothenateaverage11.00 mg/kg
Folic Acidaverage0.50 mg/kg
Inositolaverage350.00 mg/kg
Nicotinic Acid (PP)average118.00 mg/kg
Pyridoxine (B-6)average3.00 mg/kg
Riboflavine (B-2)average40.00 mg/kg
Thiamine (B-1)average55.00 mg/kg
Tocopherol (E)average190.00 mg/kg

Moisture7.0%


Ash9.0%


Minerals
Calcium (Ca)1,315 mg/kg  
Phosphorus (P)8,942 mg/kg  
Iron (Fe)580 mg/kg  
Sodium (Na)412 mg/kg  
Chloride (Cl)4,400 mg/kg  
Magnesium (Mg)1,915 mg/kg  
Manganese (Mn)25 mg/kg  
Zinc (Zn)39 mg/kg  
Potassium (K)15,400 mg/kg  
Others57,000 mg/kg  


Nutritional Value
Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of 2.2-2.6
(74-87% that of casein)
Net Protein Utilization (NPU) of 53-61%
(85-92% that of casein)
Digestibility of 83-84%
Available Lysine – average – 85%


Nitrogen from Nucleic Acids1.99%
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
RNA = N x 2.18
3.50%
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
DNA = N x 2.63
1.00%


Total Carbohydrates16.5%
Rhamnoseaverage9.0%
Glucaneaverage1.5%
Phosphoryled cyclitolsaverage2.5%
Glucosamine & Muramic acidaverage2.0%
Glycogenaverage0.5%
Sialic acid & othersaverage0.5%

Sterols325 mg/kg
Cholesterol 196 mg/kg
Sitosterol  97 mg/kg
Dihidro 7 Cholesterol32 mg/kg
Sodium (Na) 
Chloride (Cl) 
Magnesium (Mg) 


Carotenoids4,000 mg/kg
α Caroteneaveragetraces
ß Caroteneaverage1,700 mg/kg
Xanthophylisaverage1,000 mg/kg
Cryptoxanthinaverage556 mg/kg
Echinenoneaverage439 mg/kg
Zeaxanthinaverage316 mg/kg
Lutein & Euglenanoneaverage289 mg/kg


Total Lipids7.0%
Fatty Acids5.7%
  Lauric (C-12)229 mg/kg
  Myristic (C-14)644 mg/kg
  Palmitic (C-16)21,141 mg/kg
  Palmitoleic (C-16)2,035 mg/kg
  Palmitolinoleic (C-16)2,565 mg/kg
  Heptadecanoic (C-17)142 mg/kg
  Stearic (C-18)353 mg/kg
  Oleic (C-18)3,009 mg/kg
  δ Linoleic (C-18)13,784 mg/kg
  α Linolenic (C-18)11,970 mg/kg
  Linolenic (C-18)427 mg/kg
  Others699 mg/kg
Insaponifiable1.3%
  Sterols325 mg/kg
  Titerpen alcohols800 mg/kg
  Carotenoids4,000 mg/kg
  Chlorophyll a7,600 mg/kg
  Others150 mg/kg

 

The Microwave Oven

Initially in the U.S. and later in Europe microwave ovens have been increasingly used for preparation of food in restaurants and in private households. Over the past decade microwave ovens have been enjoying greater popularity. It was claimed that microwave ovens result in convenience and reduced costs for electricity. Numerous cookbooks were created to support this cooking technique and the sales of such ovens. Scientific recommendations helped its further propagation.

The microwave oven is an upshot of the technical microwaves used during the second world war. It is based on a patent by Spencer in 1945. The hazard of microwaves, especially in its thermic effect on biological systems, has been known since the beginning of its technical application. Therefore, threshold tolerances were also introduced in connection with microwave oven (as it was in the case of radar) to lessen the danger of health hazards from leak radiation.

The quality of food from the microwave oven has not been questioned officially as of yet. It is assumed that food from the microwave oven is not better or worse than food cooked conventionally. The influence of food, defrosted or cooked in the microwave oven, on the state of health of man has still not been scientifically studied and clarified. Considering the current worldwide use of microwave ovens it becomes necessary to scientifically answer whether this food is hazardous or not hazardous to human life.

The spectrum from microwaves, as defined by today’s science, reaches from about 10-9 to 10-11 Hz. Therefore microwaves extend with its long waves far into the range of radio waves and with its short waves into the range of infra-red light. That means, therefore, that microwaves comprise the 4 wave ranges of radio, television, military shooting and guidance systems as well as microwave cooking.

There is extensive scientific literature concerning the hazardous effects of direct microwave radiation on living systems. This literature is of such information value that it is astonishing to realize how little effort has been taken to replace this detrimental technique of microwaves by a technology more in accordance with nature. The destructive effects of microwaves include damaging cell membranes, enforced anaerobic breathing, disturbed cell division, hemolysis, leukemia, genetic defects and even full inactivation of the natural cycles.

Technically produced microwaves are based on the principle of alternating current. Atoms, molecules, cells, hit by this hard electromagnetic radiation are forced to reverse polarity 1-100 billion times per second. There are no atoms, molecules and cells of any organic system which are able to withstand such a violent, destructive power for any extended period of time not even in the range of milliwatts. Of all the natural substances–which are polar— the oxygen of water molecules reacts most sensitively. Structures of molecules are torn apart, molecules are forcefully deformed (structural isomerism) and thus become impaired in quality. This type of forced, chaotic movement in molecules and cells produces frictional heat. Contrary to conventional heating of food on a fire or a stove, by which heat transfers convectionally from without to within, heating by microwaves begins within at those places where the radiation energy is absorbed, where water is present and where energy is transformed into frictional heat.

In contrast to the technically produced microwaves, the microwaves from the sun are based on principles of pulsed direct current. These rays create no frictional heat in organic substance.

The biological effects of the technical microwaves are, above all, connected with the development of frictional heat. Because biological systems such as plants, animals, and human beings are primarily water (up to 80%) it is easy to understand how biologically hazardous microwaves really are.

In addition to thermic effects, technical microwaves also possess athermic effects. These athermic effects, however, have hardly been taken into account by official science. Perhaps because these effects are not measurable like the thermic effects. But, both the thermic and athermic effects deform the structures of molecules, tear them apart and deprive them of their natural function. Obviously such deformations also have qualitative consequences. The qualitative implications and the weakening of cell membranes by microwaves have been used in the field of gene altering technology. Because of the force involved, the cells are actually broken , thereby neutralizing the electrical potentials, the very life of the cells, between the outer and inner side of the cells. And impaired cell becomes easy prey for viruses and mycetes (fungi). As a result of prolonged stress influence, such as with microwaves, there is suppression of natural cellular repair mechanism and the cells, therefore are forced to adapt a state of energy emergency. In other words, cells switch from aerobic to an anaerobic breathing . Instead of H20 and C02 (aerobic breathing ) the cell poisons H202 and C0 are produced, exactly like in a cancer cell.


(Editor’s note: Our terms for this very same reversal of the healthy cell processes are from “robust oxidation” to “fermentation”)

This is why leak radiation from microwave ovens is so hazardous. However, in almost every country different threshold tolerances are in use, a situation which clearly shows that the problems involved with microwaves are still not yet fully understood. In addition, all microwave ovens leak to a more or lesser extent, and with age the leakage problem increases.

 

 

Effects of Microwaves

Microwaves and technical radioactivity are scientifically known to be the main causative factors for detrimental “electrosmog”. They destroy the functions of all living systems which are based on natural electromagnetic fields. These radiations affect the living organisms through many different bodily systems. These include the surface area of the skin, the eyes via the retino-hypothalamic pathway, the lungs by inbreathing irradiated air, and as we will see in detail , through the indigestion of irradiated food. Because of exposure through the eyes, electromagnetic vibrations of artificial rays impair the pineal gland and the entire endocrine system including thyroid gland, pancreas, genital glands and the adrenal glands. It can be expected that the results of such effects will be reflected in the blood.

Microwaves can cause the same deformation in the structures and form of molecules of food prepared in the microwave oven as they would directly on a living organism. To prepare food in a microwave oven a frequency range of 2450-50 MHz is used at a power input of about 1000 watts and more. The power output amounts to about 600 watts and corresponds to the output of television transmitter stations or to satellites. This radiation results in destruction and deformation of molecules of food as well as an ongoing formation of new substances unknown to science or to nature. Furthermore, this technically produced hard radiation is also forcefully induced into the food, which thus transforms it into a source of this very radiation. This corresponds to accepted electrical laws. The true impact of this type of radiation-induced process on organic matter is still not known to its full extent. The routine analyses are of little help because known substances like proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, etc. remain quantitatively measurable despite significant qualitative alterations. Such substances can still be chemically determined. It has been observed that some isomeric structural changes in amino acids have been caused by a microwave induced hydrolysis into toxic form such as cis-3 and cis-4 hydroxyproline.

Whether and to what effect microwaves are hazardous or not hazardous via food can only be determined indirectly-meaning via its effects on a living organism. New and more direct ways may be developed in the future. This study is based upon indirect determinations by measuring the effects of different foods prepared conventionally and in the microwave oven on alterations of various parameters in
the blood of test persons.

 

 

The Study

Five women and three men of which seven came from the Macrobiotic Institute at Kiental, Switzerland, between 20 and 35 years of age, and one member of the trial staff, a 61 year old male, participated in the study for the trial period of two months – August And September 1989. During this time all test persons voluntarily agreed to abide a strict protocol. They also agreed to avoid any unnecessary stress and to appear each test morning in a relaxed and harmonious condition.

On each testing day only one food variant was administered. Either 400 ml milk or 400 grams vegetables (200 grams of each kind) were ingested on an empty stomach.

The first drawing of blood samples took place on an empty stomach at 7:45 a.m. The second drawing of blood took place 15 minutes after the food intake, and the third drawing two hours later.

From each sample 50 milliliters were used for the chemistry and five ml for the hematology and the luminescence. The hematological examinations followed immediately after drawing the samples. Erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean hemoglobin content (MHC), leukocytes and lymphocytes were measured.

The chemical analyses consisted of iron, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Furthermore, a bioluminescence method by Dr. Lange, Zurich was put to use. The luminous power of luminescent bacteria was measured after exposing the bacteria to food variants and to the serum of test persons. Method: Dilutions of milk vegetable juice as well as fresh serum after natural sedimentation was added to a standardized suspension of luminescent bacteria. Any stimulation or inhibition of the luminous power was measured. Electronic data processing of all statistical calculations are based on the “Rank” system.

 

 

Analysis and Observations

Analysis and Observations of the Food Variants:

Milk, which was cooked in the microwave oven
shows alterations in some essential parameters.

  • The acidity increases. The same observation can be made everywhere in nature today. Because of technically caused stresses such as poisons and radiations, the acidity increases measurably in the water, the air, the soil and in organic matter. Acidosis–smaller than pH4.5 –as well as alkalosis pH greater than 7.5 are symptoms of illness.
     
  • The sediment increases. The protein stability gets clearly over strained. The protein gets denatured to a greater extent than by all other processes such as pasteurization, conventional cooking, homogenization. Because of an increased sandy and slimy sediment it becomes impossible to determine the viscosity of the milk with the K.G.-Ubbelohde method.
     
  • The fat structure changes. Under the influence of microwaves the fat globules become over sized. That means the membranes of the normal fat globules are destroyed -similar to other cell membranes, and rebuilt again, while enclosing greater amounts of fat in a continuous succession. This process is not completely understood as yet.
     
  • Milk is charged with energy. The energetic irradiation with microwaves is obviously stored in milk. The luminous power of bacteria in the presence of such irradiated milk remains maintained over a longer period of time than in the presence of the other milk variants. It must be expected that such inductively charged milk can also transfer these energies to something else again, such as into a human being who consumes this milk.
     
  • The folic acid decreases. Folic acid is a vitamin of the B-group and is essential for the building of blood. This decrease of folic acid under the influence of microwaves confirms findings also stated in the literature. It is possible that this decrease is due to the light sensitivity of folic acid, also to the light in the unseen spectrum of the microwaves.
     
  • The non-protein nitrogen increases. It is known that non-protein nitrogen increases with increasing milk denaturization, while non-casein nitrogen tends to decrease.
     
  • Vitamins A and C seem to increase. However, the vitamin in untreated raw milk are not always completely detectable. They are often masked. Certain technological processes may unmask vitamin and thereby seemingly increase their numbers. Common analyses normally give no information about form and quality of vitamins which very well may be changed be such processes.
     

 

Vegetables:

  • The extraordinary losses of weight because of juice losses in the microwave oven can be reduced when a longer and less intensive defrosting procedure is used. (Such as setting them out at room temperature)
     
  • Even when carrots were cut into small slices they could not be cooked well done even when put into the microwave oven for 30 minutes (see table 3). Obviously carrots are not well suited for being cooked in the microwave oven. However, from the microwave oven taste and appearance of both vegetables remained unobjectionable.
     
  • During digestion the availability of energy from vegetables is much slower than from milk. In order to make this energy more readily available it is necessary that vegetables be broken up through cooking. The luminous power of bacteria is thereby strongly stimulated (see table 4). The somewhat lower energy level in vegetables from the microwave oven is due to the heavy weight losses of more than 20% of juice. Therefore, these respective results are not really comparable with the other data. Also repetitions of the cooking procedure did not bring better results.
     
  • The losses of juices in the microwave oven could not be reduced. It must be assumed that including the energy from the juice weight loss, the total energy would be at least comparable to that of vegetables from the pressure cooker.